Friends Meeting Activity Packet

A resource to understand and practice a traditional quaker meeting.

Quaker Meeting Experience

The goal of this exercise is for people in the room to observe a “staged” silent meeting.  I described it as a “magic trick” so that people understood it was something they just observed not participated in.

I arranged the chairs as in a Quaker Meeting so some are facing inward.  The design of the chairs in an ideal setting is a facing set of chairs at the front, rows of chairs on both sides facing into the center of the room and then rows of chairs in the middle facing the front.  

I explained that the facing bench is where the Elders sit, men and women Elders could sit up front on the facing benches.  Woman and men sat on opposite sides of the church for the first hundred years so as not to distract from worship but this changed and for hundreds of years they sit together.

I also point out the facing seat left empty to symbolize that the Holy Sprit or Christ will lead the meeting not any particular man.  I make it a point to have a woman sit up front on the facing bench to call attention that Quaker allowed women Elders and did not distinguish between men and women because God views us as equals.  I also remind the class that there were no loud speakers or choir so sitting this way allowed everyone to hear each other. 

I ask the class to bow their heads and be quiet and that I have some people that I’ve selected ahead of the class, who will simulate a silent meeting.  I’ve already handed out to four people the pages they will read from and the instructions are on each page for a delay between the actors reading their parts.   Have those who read mixed into the crowd not all sitting up front.  After the class bows their heads the “magic trick” starts. 

Speaker One:

After a brief delay of 20 seconds or so.

Please stand and slowly read this then sit down.

Make every effort to keep the unity of the Spirit through the bond of peace.

There is one body and one Spirit,

Speaker Two 

Wait for 35 seconds or slightly more after the first person completes their reading then please stand and read this:

I’ve had a struggle this past month but God brought me this and I share it with you.

Be still, my soul: the Lord is on thy side.

Bear patiently the cross of grief or pain.

Leave to thy God to order and provide;

In every change, He faithful will remain.

Be still, my soul: thy best, thy heavenly Friend

Through thorny ways leads to a joyful end.

Be still, my soul: thy God doth undertake

To guide the future, as He has the past.

Thy hope, thy confidence let nothing shake;

All now mysterious shall be bright at last.

Be still, my soul: the waves and winds still know

His voice Who ruled them while He dwelt below.

Be still, my soul: when dearest friends depart,

And all is darkened in the vale of tears,

Then shalt thou better know His love, His heart,

Who comes to soothe thy sorrow and thy fears.

Be still, my soul: thy Jesus can repay

From His own fullness all He takes away.

Speaker Three 

Wait for over a minute after the second person finishes speaking, then please stand and read this:

Lord we here ask that your protection be upon our friend Dan Eitzen in High Wycomb England,  and as he travels,  may your peace be on him and his household, may we see you lift up even more workers to help Dan in the future.

Elder to Close Meeting this would be the leader of the class.

After the third person prays for Dan Eitzen and ends wait for about 25 seconds 

say “Amen” 

then stand up and have one of the Elders in the front row stand with you and shake your hand hand and say “good friends go in peace”.

You can then explain that Quaker Meetings ended when two Elders stood up and shook hands not when someone prayed or a song was sung, this simulates this way of ending the service.  I suggest you end the class this way every time.  Have everyone stand up and shake hands.  

I have a slide at the end showing two hands.

Experience - Quaker Business Meeting 

The goal of this is to illustrate several things that can go on within a Quaker Business meeting, it is just a simulation.  Quakers always strived to be led by the Holy Sprit in all they did including business meetings.  Business meetings are considered worship services.  Unity is always the deciding factor God is not a God of confusion, if all are following the leading of the Holy Spirit then there is a natural unity.  Unity is both to be strived for and a sign.

Historically since no one person was in charge of a Quaker meeting business meetings had to have some order and a clerk would run the meeting.  The Clerk’s role was to find the “sense of the meeting”, meaning the Clerk did not participate in the meeting but remain natural on questions, and determined how the Holy Spirit was leading the members.

I’ve writer a script for four participants to share in a mock or pretend meeting, think of this more as “readers theater” if you are familiar with the format.  You as the leader of the class will serve as the clerk.  The goal here is to illustrate some Quaker concepts and to do it very fast; in a normal meeting it would take much more time.

The script is below and I’d would suggest to the class that they observe what goes on rather than participate.   After this short mock presentation you will be able to discuss what happened between the characters.  Ask the audience to look for the following.

  1. Did the clerk find the sense of the meeting?
  2. Did the participants strive for unity or there own personal way?
  3. Did the group treat this as a worship service or a business meeting?
  4. What Quaker terms or Quakerism’s did they see?
  5. Was there a vote?

I would suggest you introduce the actors; you can use the names I’ve provided or the real names of the people in the room.  Of course you could also pick someone else to be the clerk, if you as the leaders don’t want to do it.


Clerk using the name Ed:

Actor One Male using name Tom:  

Actor Two Female using name Erin:

Actor Three Female using name Mary Jane:

Ed/Clerk:  Good evening I’d like us to all centers down on the three topics that we have this evening for this business meeting.  I’m your clerk and before the meeting tonight I have three important questions.  The first question will be concerning the approval of this year’s budget.  The finance committee has done an excellent job of putting this together, you all got a copy in the mail or at the back of the room before you came in and the Elders have asked that the congregation approve the budget.  We attempted to do this last meeting but we had some outstanding questions about items in the budget from several members.  

It was the clerks judgment that some additional time should be spent to clarify.  Tonight I’m calling the question, if you did not take advantage of the additional time, and you still have questions, I’m going to ask you to stand aside on this issue for the sake of unity.  

I’d like to start out and ask specifically that if you did take advantage of the extra time to ask your questions of the finance committee or Elders can you please share with this body.  Yes Tom please share:

Tom:  Thanks you I’m Tom I had questions last time I spoke to the committee and it was concerning the budget and how much money would be spent on kids going to summer camp.  My questions were answered.

Ed/Clerk:  Tom are you in favor of this budget or not?

Tom:  Yes I’m in favor of this budget.

Clerk:  Thanks is anyone else want to share about getting clarifying information on the budget?  Yes Erin please speak.

Erin:  Just one small correction the Nursery budget is staying the same on line 16 we had a small error it remains the same as last year, sorry for that mathematical error some pointed that out to me.

Ed/Clerk:  Thanks and you and I have talked I know you are in favor of this proposal correct?

Erin: yes

Ed/Clerk:  Does anyone else want to share on the budget?  (pause)   The clerk would like to call this question, to help the clerk I’d like all those in favor to say approved?

Tom, Erin, Mary Jane:  “Approved”

Ed/Clerk:  Anyone not in favor please say “disapproved”

Ed/Clerk:  The Clerk finds a clear sense of the meeting that the budget is approved I need to move onto a new topic that being a proposal to use building funds of which we have in excess of $200,000 in that fund a portion of those funds it is proposed are to be used for painting the parking lot, putting in a basketball court, removing two trees and also funding the youth program and it’s leader for 8 months.  The Elders have put this proposal together working with the Trustee’s who oversee the facilities.  Many hours have been spent on this proposal and you have the details in the handout.

The clerk is looking to find out how God is leading us on this proposal, let me remind the congregation the proposal comes to us already approved by two committee’s and it comes as a whole proposal not in pieces.  This is a business meeting not a committee meeting, our role is approve or disapprove not to try and create a new proposal the clerk is confidant that those who put this together have done so with our best interests.  

If you would like to participate in the building of proposals and budgets this is not the meeting however the Clerk would be more that willing to talk with you later about serving on a committee.  In Acts 6 those who complained about their widows not being cared for were appointed to a committee to do just what they complained about, and committee’s are very much appreciated here.

I’d like to open this question of the proposal to use building funds to the congregation.  (pause)

Tom:  Well years ago we had a similar situation concerning a leaky roof over the kitchen.  We decided to not use the building funds, to fix the roof but instead we had a young man in the church that worked on roofs, and he tried to fix the roof on his spare time.  He was a good man had a dog he took with him everywhere he went.  

Ed/Clerk: I’d ask the gentleman to stop and consider the question at hand, the clerk is trying to determine how the Holy Spirit is leading you right now on this question are you in the a affirmative or not?

Tom:  Well I’m very much in favor.

Ed/Clerk:  Thanks for your input the clerk appreciates it.  Next young lady you may speak.

Erin:  I’ve struggled with this issue, I think that people gave this money and designated it to the building fund with the expectation that it would only be spent on the building.  I like upgrading the parking lot and basketball court but paying salary I’m not so sure.

Ed/Clerk:  Thank you.  We will hear from the other young lady next please share:

Mary Jane:  I’m Mary Jane and I too struggled however I realize that being a good steward of what God has provided to use doesn’t meant taking the money and burying it.  I as reading about the parable of the three servants one who buried the money the master gave him.  The master called him wicked because while he kept the money he didn’t invest it like the other servants did.  I really can see this proposal in the same way we don’t need to sit on these funds, this is a good proposal and I’ve come to appreciate it and favor it.

Ed/Clerk:  Thanks for sharing; yes Erin you would like to share again:

Erin:  Thank you yes that story of being a good steward really spoke to me and while I have reservations about this proposal I’d be willing to stand aside for the sake of unity on this question.

Ed/Clerk:  Thanks anyone one else want to share on this proposal.  The clerk thanks all those who have shared, and the clerk believes the sense of the meeting is that this proposal is approved.  I’d like to move onto the last of our topics of business tonight that being the proposal to help out the downtown mission with some money to upgrade there library and to pay for some of there staffing needs.

The proposal has been circulated and discussed for some time around the church.  Now before I open the question I’d like to remind everyone that we value Unity over all, so please keep in mind that this is a worship service and we seek unity.

The question before the membership tonight is should we send $11,000 to the downtown mission to help them with their library and staffing needs?

Tom:  I rise to ask my friends to support this great work in the inner city, which needs our help in the greatest way.

Erin:  I have looked at this proposal and I can’t support it, we have needs here and that money could be better spent here on our own needs and I don’t think the money is well spent.

Mary Joe:  I’m really take issue with the amount of money 11,000 is a lot of money.

Tom:  May I address the issue again,

Clerk:    In a moment Tom let’s take a moment I’d like to ask us some Queries to focus ourselves.

I’d like use all to go into a time a silent prayer and ask the Lord to Lead us and as your praying I’m going to ask you to consider a few queries.  Please bow your heads in silence.  (Pause)  Tonight I’d like you to pray for the leaders of the downtown church and what they face (pause 30 seconds) I’d like us to now ask your self is giving this money being a good steward of what God has entrusted to us?  (Pause 15 seconds)  The last query is to consider is this blessing to be considering this question tonight or something troubling?  (Pause 20 seconds)  Amen

I’d like to reopen comments on this question, Tom would you like to speak?

Tom:  No I’m still considering you last query.

Mary Joe:  I really struggle with sending this money, and I think we should not do it.  It is not easy to say this.

Erin:  It may sound harsh but I’m not sure I can trust that if we send this money it will be used well.  

Tom:  Well I’m disappointed, I really like this ministry and we should do everything we can to help them.

Clerk:  I think it’s clear we do not have unity on this issue and so the proposal is not approved, I’m going to close our meeting, thank you for coming greet you neighbor with a handshake and thank you for coming.

Clarifying Statements for the discussion following the script.

To help with this discussion I suggest you return to these questions:

  1. Did the clerk find the sense of the meeting?
  2. Did the participants strive for unity or there own personal way?
  3. Did the group treat this as a worship service or a business meeting?
  4. What Quaker terms or Quakerism’s did they see?
  5. Was there a vote?

Several times during this short reading some terms that Quakers are familiar with were used.  I’ll review them here briefly and I’d suggest that you review some of them.

Center down.  This term is used when the clerk wants people to concentrate in prayer on one specific issue, it’s a term widely used to draw direct attention by clearing out distractions and focusing in on what the Holy Spirit is leading us to do.

Calling the question (no more time to clarify now it’s time to see how God is leading.)  Calling the question is pointing to the transition point between informing the congregation and asking the congregation for how the Holy Spirit is leading.  Informing the congregation is important and part of the process but at some point the clerk has to transition to focusing upon the question not the information, a skillful Clerk will “call the question” after an appropriate amount of time.   A poor clerk will never call the question but instead allow endless information to be passing back and forth.

Stand Aside or Stand Aside for the Unity of the Body.  This is a very common thing to hear in a Quaker meeting, members want to preserve the unity of the church so after others have heard there requests it’s very common for people to realize that they are “standing in the way” of unity and they have a higher calling to stand aside, making this known means that your not agreeing with what’s being decided but you realize that Unity is more important that whatever specific issue is being decided at that moment.

Clear Sense of the Meeting or Sense of the Meeting.  The Clerk’s role is to figure out how the Holy Spirit is leading, and you saw illustrated several ways that the clerk can do that.  One is to ask people for a voice vote, or ask specific people who have shared how they stand on the issue.  The Clerk has a role to play, which is not easy.

Approving without asking for a voice vote or rising of hands.  In the examples the Clerk approved the budget with a simple voice vote to quickly figure out if the vast majority of members were in favor.  The clerk did not ask for a voice vote on the proposal to use building funds instead sensing that there was unity he approved it and moved on, it is the Clerks choice on how he comes to this decision.  In all cases the Quakers are not built for quick meetings under this format.

Committee’s and Elders   Both of these are important to the church, the Clerk does not create a proposal for the congregation to approve, he instead is asked by the major committee’s and or the Elders to call a meeting to approve or disapprove the proposal.  Committee’s are critical to the church function and of course date back to the original New Testament Church.  I specifically called out this connection with the following paragraph.  The business meeting is not the place to gripe or argue about a pet issue.  Those most willing to complain should quickly be put into service.

“If you would like to participate in the building of proposals and budgets this is not the meeting however the Clerk would be more that willing to talk with you later about serving on a committee.  In Acts 6 those who complained about their widows not being cared for were appointed to a committee to do just that, and committee’s are very much appreciated here.”

This is a reference to many Friends committee’s that function and if someone wants to object to a committee’s work the best approach is to put them on the committee.  This is what happened in Acts 6.  

Quaker Queries to focus ourselves.  In rare occasions, usually a controversial issue, the Clerk has to take on the role of focusing re-focusing people on the bigger picture, queries can do this and that was illustrated.  The Clerk needs to be careful to present queries that are clearly trying to allow the Holy Spirit to influence how people are lead and not take a side in the questions at hand.

Quaker Queries Exercise

Are our homes places of peace, joy, and contentment? Are they an influence for good in the neighborhood, community, and country? Do we set a good Christian example for our children to follow? Are Friends careful that their children realize that our loving Savior will faithfully guide them through life, as they are willing to accept and obey Him? Do we help our children to read and appreciate the Bible?

Do you so order your life as to include reading, meditation and communion, that you may know more of the presence and guidance of the Divine Spirit? Do you remember the need to pray for others, holding them in the presence of God?

Are love and unity fostered among you? Do you manifest a forgiving spirit and a care for the reputation of others? If differences threaten harmony among your members, is prompt action taken in a spirit of meekness and love? Do you visit one another frequently? Do you keep in touch with inactive and distant members? 

Do you keep to simplicity and moderation in your speech, your manner of living, and your pursuit of business? Are you careful to keep your business and your outward activities from absorbing time and energy that should be given to spiritual growth and to the service of your religious society? Are you just in your dealings and careful to fulfill your promises? Do you take care of such members as need aid, and assist them, when possible, to become self-supporting?

Do you regard your possessions as given you in trust and do you part with freely for the needs of others? Are your means of livelihood in keeping with your ideals as Friends? Are you concerned that your business be primarily a service to people? What are you doing to foster upright practices in business relations? Do you maintain strict integrity in all business transactions? 

At the conclusion of the reading I call for the class to end their time of silence and  I explain that Quaker Queries are presented so that those hearing can ask the Holy Spirit to use those words to point out things in there own life.  

This generally is met with appreciation, it’s not to ask for a testimony afterwards of someone who was influenced by it, it is an internal exercise for each individual to maybe hear Queries for the first time.

I also have the slide that then talks about how women, men and the Holy Spirit are at work.  That slide attempts to allow the teacher of the class to show that women and men equally can have ministry but it’s really the work of the Holy Spirit in a person’s life that matters.

The goal of this experience is for people to appreciate the written word and how it can move an audience and cause people to think.  Long before TV people visualized things in their mind especially through poetry.  John Greenleaf a writer and poet should probably be thought of more as a political commentator or political cartoonist today.  

Through quite a bit of suffering John Greenleaf took a life long stand against slavery, writing and lobbying for changes.  I would suggest for this exercise you read or have someone read the poem “Our Countrymen in Chains”

Ask the class to be quiet for about 20 seconds then have someone you have selected ahead of time stand and read this poem.  It is quite long so you might want them to only read about a minute of it.  

You can have the person stop reading after a bit, different readers go at different paces then ask the class did they see in there own mind the objects and images that Whittier’s poem was describing, for example the “chains”.

I’ve included other poems so  you can select others, if you would like, the key is to get the class to appreciate word pictures in this modern world of video.

We will hear more about Whittier the man in later chapters.


                          BY J.G. WHITTIER


     SLAVES—in a land of light and law !—

SLAVES—crouching on the very plains

     Where rolled the storm of Freedom's war !

A groan from Eutaw's haunted wood—

     A wail where Camden's martyr's fell—

By every shrine of patriot blood,

     From Moultrie's wall and Jasper's well !

By storied hill and hallowed grot,

     By mossy wood and marshy glen,

Whence rang of old the rifle shot,

     And hurrying shout of Marion's men !—

The groan of breaking hearts is there—

     The falling lash—the fetter's clank !—

Slaves—SLAVES are breathing in that air

     Which old De Kalb and Sumpter drank !

What, ho !—our countrymen in chains !—

     The whip on WOMAN'S shrinking flesh !

Our soil yet reddening with the stains,

     Caught from her scourging, warm and fresh !

What ! mothers from their children riven !—

     What ! God's own image bought and sold !—

AMERICANS to market driven,

     And bartered as the brute for gold !

Speak !—shall their agony of prayer

     Come thrilling to our hearts in vain !

To us—whose fathers scorned to bear

     The paltry menace of a chain ;—

To us whose boast is loud and long

     Of holy liberty and light—

Say, shall these writhing slaves of Wrong

     Plead vainly for their plundered Right ?

What !—shall we send, with lavish breath,

     Our sympathies across the wave,

Where manhood on the field of death

     Strikes for his freedom, or a grave ?—

Shall prayers go up—and hymns be sung

     For Greece, the Moslem fetter spurning—

And millions hail with pen and tongue

     Our light on all her altars burning !

Shall Belgium feel, and gallant France,

     By Vendome's pile and Schoenbrun's wall

And Poland, gasping on her lance,

     The impulse of our cheering call ?

And shall the SLAVE, beneath our eye,

     Clank o'er our fields his hateful chain ?

And toss his fettered arm on high,

     And groan for freedom's gift, in vain ?

Oh say, shall Prussia's banner be

     A refuge for the stricken slave ;—

And shall the Russian serf go free

     By Baikal's lake and Neva's wave ;—

And shall the wintry-bosomed Dane

     Relax the iron hand of pride,

And bid his bondmen cast the chain

     From fettered soul and limb, aside ?

Shall every flap of England's flag*

     Proclaim that all around are free,

From 'fartherst Ind' to each blue crag

     That beetles o'er the Western Sea ?

And shall we scoff at Europe's kings,

     When Freedom's fire is dim with us,

And round our country's altar clings

     The damning shade of Slavery's curse ?

Go—let us ask of Constantine

     To loose his grasp on Poland's throat—

And beg the lord of Mahmoud's line

     To spare the struggling Suliote.

Will not the scorching answer come

     From turbaned Turk, and fiery Russ—

'Go, loose your fettered slaves at home,

     Then turn and ask the like of us !'

Just God ! and shall we calmly rest,

     The christian's scorn—the heathen's mirth—

Content to live the lingering jest

     And by word of a mocking earth ?

Shall our own glorious land retain

     That curse which Europe seems to bear ?

Shall our own brethren drag the chain

     Which not even Russia's menials wear ?

Up, then, in Freedom's manly part,

     From gray-beard old to fiery youth,

And on the nation's naked heart

     Scatter the living coals of Truth.

Up—while ye slumber, deeper yet

     The shadow of our fame is growing—

Up—While ye pause, our sun may set

     In blood, around our altars flowing !

Oh rouse ye, ere the storm comes forth—

     The gathered wrath of God and man—

Like that which wasted Egypt's earth,

     When hail and fire above it ran.

Hear ye no warnings in the air ?

     Feel ye no earthquake underneath ?

Up—up—why will ye slumber where

     The sleeper only wakes in death ?

Up NOW for Freedom !—not in strife

     Like that your sterner fathers saw

The awful waste of human life—

     The glory and the guilt of war :

But break the chain—the yoke remove

     And smite to earth oppression's rod,

With those mild arms of Truth and Love,

     Made mighty through the living God !

Prone let the shrine of Moloch sink,

     And leave no traces where it stood

Nor longer let its idol drink

     His daily cup of human blood :

Bur rear another altar there,

     To truth and love and mercy given,

And Freedom's gift and Freedom's prayer

     Shall call an answer down from Heaven !

Barbara Frietchie

by John Greenleaf Whittier

From In War Time.

This poem was written in strict conformity to the account of the incident as I had it from respectable and trustworthy sources. It has since been the subject of a good deal of conflicting testimony, and the story was probably incorrect in some of its details. It is admitted by all that Barbara Frietchie was no myth, but a worthy and highly esteemed gentlewoman, intensely loyal and a hater of the Slavery Rebellion, holding her Union flag sacred and keeping it with her Bible; that when the Confederates halted before her house, and entered her dooryard, she denounced them in vigorous language, shook her cane in their faces, and drove them out; and when General Burnside's troops followed close upon Jackson's, she waved her flag and cheered them. It is stated that May Quantrell, a brave and loyal lady in another part of the city, did wave her flag in sight of the Confederates. It is possible that there has been a blending of the two incidents.

Winston Churchill recited the poem to FDR while driving through Frederick, Maryland. It is said that the President was embarrassed that Churchill knew more about this piece of American history than he did.

Up from the meadows rich with corn,

Clear in the cool September morn,

The clustered spires of Frederick stand

Green-walled by the hills of Maryland.

Round about them orchards sweep,

Apple and peach tree fruited deep,

Fair as the garden of the Lord

To the eyes of the famished rebel horde,

On that pleasant morn of the early fall

When Lee marched over the mountain-wall;

Over the mountains winding down,

Horse and foot, into Frederick town.

Forty flags with their silver stars,

Forty flags with their crimson bars,

Flapped in the morning wind: the sun

Of noon looked down, and saw not one.

Up rose old Barbara Frietchie then,

Bowed with her fourscore years and ten;

Bravest of all in Frederick town,

She took up the flag the men hauled down;

In her attic window the staff she set,

To show that one heart was loyal yet,

Up the street came the rebel tread,

Stonewall Jackson riding ahead.

Under his slouched hat left and right

He glanced; the old flag met his sight.

'Halt!' - the dust-brown ranks stood fast.

'Fire!' - out blazed the rifle-blast.

It shivered the window, pane and sash;

It rent the banner with seam and gash.

Quick, as it fell, from the broken staff

Dame Barbara snatched the silken scarf.

She leaned far out on the window-sill,

And shook it forth with a royal will.

'Shoot, if you must, this old gray head,

But spare your country's flag,' she said.

A shade of sadness, a blush of shame,

Over the face of the leader came;

The nobler nature within him stirred

To life at that woman's deed and word;

'Who touches a hair of yon gray head

Dies like a dog! March on!' he said.

All day long through Frederick street

Sounded the tread of marching feet:

All day long that free flag tost

Over the heads of the rebel host.

Ever its torn folds rose and fell

On the loyal winds that loved it well;

And through the hill-gaps sunset light

Shone over it with a warm good-night.

Barbara Frietchie's work is o'er,

And the Rebel rides on his raids nor more.

Honor to her! and let a tear

Fall, for her sake, on Stonewalls' bier.

Over Barbara Frietchie's grave,

Flag of Freedom and Union, wave!

Peace and order and beauty draw

Round thy symbol of light and law;

And ever the stars above look down

On thy stars below in Frederick town!

“Song of the Negro Boatmen,"

written in dialect

John Greenleaf Whittier

Oh, praise an' tanks! De Lord he come

To set de people free;

An' massa tink it day ob doom,

An' we ob jubilee.

De Lord dat heap de Red Sea waves

He jus' as 'trong as den;

He say de word: we las' night slaves;

To-day, de Lord's freemen.

De yam will grow, de cotton blow,

We'll hab de rice an' corn:

Oh, nebber you fear, if nebber you hear

De driver blow his horn!

Of all the poetry inspired by the Civil War, the "Song of the Negro Boatmen" was one of the most widely printed,[22] and though Whittier never actually visited Port Royal, an abolitionist working there described his "Song of the Negro Boatmen" as "wonderfully applicable as we were being rowed across Hilton Head Harbor among United States gunboats."[23]

"The Quakers are Out"

by John Greenleaf Whittier

Not vainly we waited and counted the hours,

The buds of our hope have all burst into flowers.

No room for misgiving--no loop-hole of doubt,—

we've heard from the Keystone! The Quakers are out!

The plot has exploded--we've found out the trick;

The bribe goes a-begging; the fusion won't stick.

When the Wide-awake lanterns are shining about,

The rogues stay at home, and the true men are out!

The good State has broken the cords for her spun;

Her oil-springs and water won't fuse into one;

The Dutchman has seasoned with Freedom his krout,

And slow, late, but certain, the Quakers are out!

Give the flags to the winds! set the hills all aflame!

Make way for the man with the Patriarch's name!

Away with misgivings--away with all doubt,

For Lincoln goes in when the Quakers are out!